Models of personality (WIP)

We briefly describe models of personality based on questionnaires like the Big Five (a.k.a. OCEAN, Five Factor Model), HEXACO and Zuckerman-Kuhlman.

1 Q&A and I just want to…

2 General considerations

2.1 Study design

3 Comparisons

4 Models

4.1 Big Five

A.k.a. OCEAN personality model.

4.1.1 Domains

The last letter of abbreviations is de-facto standard. The “B5-” prefix to distinguish it as corresponding to the Big Five model is our own.

For each domain we list the adjectives from Saucier (1994) Mini-Markers: A Brief Version of Goldberg’s Unipolar Big-Five Markers Extraversion (B5-E)

Other names: Surgency.

Adjectives: Agreeableness (B5-A)

Other names: Antagonism (R), Pleasantness.

The low pole is antagonism. Propensity to cooperate with others instead of antagonizing others.


See also our page on psychopathy. 5-Factor model for agreeableness

Several researchers have taken items of agreeableness from Big Five inventories and related subscales and analyzed them using Goldberg bass-ackward method. These studies have mostly agreed on the content of the factors. The factor names and example items are from Vize (2020). Conscientiousness (B5-C)

Other names: Dependability.

Propensity to be thorough in tasks one performs. Seeking and enforcing order. Being responsible

Adjectives: Negative emotionality (B5-N)

Other names: Neuroticism, Emotional stability (R).

Propensity to negative emotions.

Adjectives: Open-mindedness (B5-O)

Other name: Intellect, Culture, Openness to experience.

This domain is the most diverse in descriptions of it. Being open to new ideas instead of ideologically stubborn. It does not refer to being socially open.


4.1.2 List of Big Five questionnaires

4.1.3 List of Big Five markers

4.2 Five Factor Model (FFM)

The five factor model is a variant of the Big Five. It originated from the NEO-PI questionnaire. Each of 5 level-1 groups is called a domain. Each factor of the FFM includes 6 facets, for a total of 30 facets for the whole model.

4.2.1 Five Factor Model domains and facets

4.2.2 Five Factor Model papers

4.2.3 List of Five Factor Model questionnaires


Official web site: Online questionnaires and the full list of items for HEXACO-PI-R-60 and HEXACO-PI-R-100 in several languages including English are available in this page.


4.3.1 Differences with Big Five


4.3.2 List of HEXACO questionnaires

4.4 Zuckerman-Kuhlman (ZK)

Also called “alternative five”. Attempts to capture biologically basic personality traits.

ZK is the result of making a personality model according to these principles:

  1. Should be reliably identified across different methods, genders, ages, and cultures.
  2. Should show moderate heritability.
  3. Should be identified in non-human species, especially species that are socially organized.
  4. Each dimension has significant biological markers.


Names, abbreviations and order are from the ZKPQ.

4.4.1 List of Zuckerman-Kuhlman model questionnaires

4.5 SAPA Personality Inventory (SPI)

Web site:
Introduced in: Codon (2017) The SAPA Personality Inventory: An empirically-derived, hierarchically-organized self-report personality assessment model

The SPI is a 27-factor personality model developed from analyzing a very large data set including many questionnaires.

See for the questionnaires for SPI developed along the SPI model itself, with full items. Questionnaires range from 27 items to 135 items and several of them re-use provide an assessment in the Big Five in addition to SPI.

4.6 Eysenck Personality Model

A.k.a. PEN model (For “psychoticism”, “extraversion”, “neuroticism”).

4.6.1 List of Eysenck model questionnaires

4.7 BIS/BAS Personality Model

4.8 Other personality models

5 Other questionnaires related to personality

6 Full items of selected questionnaires

6.1 Big Five Inventory 2 (BFI-2-DSG2022)

We include the Honesty-Humility subscale as listed in Denissen (2022) Incorporating prosocial vs. antisocial trait content in Big Five measurement: Lessons from the Big Five Inventory-2 (BFI-2) Numbered 61-64 in the order they appear in running text. Item recommended for both BFI-2-XS and BFI-2-S first, then item recommended for the BFI-2-S only, then the 2 remaining items.

Short forms

We reordered the items so that the abbreviated forms can be obtained by truncating the list of items within each facet.

To obtain the BFI-2 without the Honesty-Humility additions, simply remove the corresponding 4 items of that subscale.


Prompt: I see myself as somebody who…

Extraversion (12 items)

Agreeableness (16 items)

Conscientiousness (12 items)

Negative Emotionality (12 items)

Open-Mindedness (12 items)

6.2 Big Five Personality Trait Short Questionnaire (BFPTSQ-MOR2014)


Openness (10 items)

Extraversion (10 items)

Agreeableness (10 items)

Conscientiousness (10 items)

Emotional Stability (10 items)

6.3 Goldberg 100 unipolar markers (UNI-100-GOL1992)

Source: Goldberg (1992) The Development of Markers for the Big-Five Factor Structure

We renamed each subscale to its standard name with the original one in parenthesis. We inverted the items in the Negative Emotionality subscale since in the source it appears as Emotional stability, which is inverse.

Extraversion (originally “Surgency”):



Negative Emotionality (originally “Emotional Stability”, R):

Open-mindedness (originally “Intellect”):

6.4 HEX-ACO-18-OLJ2021



Item numbers are those from HEXACO-PI-R-100.

Honesty–Humilty (H)

Emotionality (E)

Extraversion (X)

Agreeableness (A)

Conscientiousness (C)

Openness (O)

6.5 HEXACO-PI-R-100

6.5.1 Items

Honesty–Humilty (H)

Emotionality (E)

Extraversion (X)

Agreeableness (A)

Conscientiousness (C)

Openness (O)

6.6 IPIP Big Five Factor Markers—100 items (IPIP-BFFM-100-GOL2001)


There is a 100 item version and a 50 item version. The order is the same as the original except that within each factor all items that appear in the 10-item version have been rearranged to go first.


  1. Am the life of the party.
  2. Feel comfortable around people.
  3. Start conversations.
  4. Talk to a lot of different people at parties.
  5. Don’t mind being the center of attention.
  6. Don’t talk a lot. (R)
  7. Keep in the background. (R)
  8. Have little to say. (R)
  9. Don’t like to draw attention to myself. (R)
  10. Am quiet around strangers. (R)

  1. Make friends easily.
  2. Take charge.
  3. Know how to captivate people.
  4. Feel at ease with people.
  5. Am skilled in handling social situations.
  6. Find it difficult to approach others. (R)
  7. Often feel uncomfortable around others. (R)
  8. Bottle up my feelings. (R)
  9. Am a very private person. (R)
  10. Wait for others to lead the way. (R)


  1. Am interested in people.
  2. Sympathize with others’ feelings.
  3. Have a soft heart.
  4. Take time out for others.
  5. Feel others’ emotions.
  6. Make people feel at ease.
  7. Am not really interested in others. (R)
  8. Insult people. (R)
  9. Am not interested in other people’s problems. (R)
  10. Feel little concern for others. (R)

  1. Inquire about others’ well-being.
  2. Know how to comfort others.
  3. Love children.
  4. Am on good terms with nearly everyone.
  5. Have a good word for everyone.
  6. Show my gratitude.
  7. Think of others first.
  8. Love to help others.
  9. Am hard to get to know.
  10. Am indifferent to the feelings of others. (R)


  1. Am always prepared.
  2. Pay attention to details.
  3. Get chores done right away.
  4. Like order.
  5. Follow a schedule.
  6. Am exacting in my work.
  7. Leave my belongings around. (R)
  8. Make a mess of things. (R)
  9. Often forget to put things back in their proper place. (R)
  10. Shirk my duties. (R)

  1. Do things according to a plan.
  2. Continue until everything is perfect.
  3. Make plans and stick to them.
  4. Love order and regularity.
  5. Like to tidy up.
  6. Neglect my duties. (R)
  7. Waste my time. (R)
  8. Do things in a half-way manner. (R)
  9. Find it difficult to get down to work. (R)
  10. Leave a mess in my room. (R)

Negative Emotionality:

  1. Am relaxed most of the time. (R)
  2. Seldom feel blue. (R)
  3. Get stressed out easily.
  4. Worry about things.
  5. Am easily disturbed.
  6. Get upset easily.
  7. Change my mood a lot.
  8. Have frequent mood swings.
  9. Get irritated easily.
  10. Often feel blue.

  1. Am not easily bothered by things. (R)
  2. Rarely get irritated. (R)
  3. Seldom get mad. (R)
  4. Get angry easily.
  5. Panic easily.
  6. Feel threatened easily.
  7. Get overwhelmed by emotions.
  8. Take offense easily.
  9. Get caught up in my problems.
  10. Grumble about things.


  1. Have a rich vocabulary.
  2. Have a vivid imagination.
  3. Have excellent ideas.
  4. Am quick to understand things.
  5. Use difficult words.
  6. Spend time reflecting on things.
  7. Am full of ideas.
  8. Have difficulty understanding abstract ideas. (R)
  9. Am not interested in abstract ideas. (R)
  10. Do not have a good imagination. (R)

  1. Carry the conversation to a higher level.
  2. Catch on to things quickly.
  3. Can handle a lot of information.
  4. Love to think up new ways of doing things.
  5. Love to read challenging material.
  6. Am good at many things.
  7. Try to avoid complex people. (R)
  8. Have difficulty imagining things. (R)
  9. Avoid difficult reading material. (R)
  10. Will not probe deeply into a subject. (R)

6.7 Need for Closure Scale (NFCS)

Items from:,

Preference for order

Preference for predictability


Discomfort with ambiguity


Need for decisiveness

6.8 Transparent Bipolar Inventory (TBI-GOL1992)


Pleasantness or Agreeableness

Conscientiousness or Dependability

Emotional Stability

Intellect or Sophistication

6.9 Zuckerman-Kuhlman Personality Questionnaire (ZKPQ)

Activity (Act) – 17 items

Aggression-Hostility (Agg-Host) – 17 items

Impulsive Sensation Seeking (ImpSS) – 19 items

Neuroticism-Anxiety (N-Anx) – 19 items

Sociability (Sy) – 17 items

Infrequency Items

7 External links